I figured I’d better get at least the bushes into the ground ASAP, so I planted the Rosa Rugosa immediately; no rosebush can possibly be truly happy with its roots in sawdust wrapped in plastic. I used the same process I used for the trees, so if anything fails, it will not be for want of consistency: Hole big enough to fit all roots without bending them (how would you feel?), hole deep enough so the crown is level with “the ground,” seafood compost packed tightly round the roots, clay-y soil cap over the compost, and enough water. (I put the hose nozzle right into the soil and blast; when the soil moves, I know there’s enough water. And never too much. Because I don’t think there can be too much.)

And here is a close-up of one of the roses, showing some compost, the clay cap, and, above all, the thorns. These thorns, just like the raspberries’ thorns, form a living fence against invasive animals: Humans who want to walk in the garden, and the occasional deer who wanders across the street.